There are several methods of defining acids and bases. However, the main difference are how inclusive they are. But we stick to one of the goals of this site and provide a simple explanation.
A solution that has an excess of H+ ions. When an acid is poured into water, it gives up H (hydrogen) to the water. For example, hydrochloric acid (HCl) dissolves in water:
Note: There are six strong acids:
• HCl - hydrochloric acid
• HNO3 - nitric acid
• H2SO4 - sulfuric acid
• HBr - hydrobromic acid
• Hl - hydroiodic acid
• HClO4 - perchloric acid
A solution that has an excess of OH- ions. When a base (alkali) is poured into water, it gives up OH (hydroxide) to the water.
For example, Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye and caustic soda, dissolves in water as follows:
There are also other ions that make solutions acidic and alkaline, but we won't be talking about them here.
Acids and bases react with one another to yield two products: water, and an ionic compound known as a salt. This kind of reaction is called a neutralization reaction.
Neutralization reactions are frequently used in the laboratory to determine how much of an alkaline or acid compound is present in a substance.
Water is acidic and basic simultaneously, H2O : H+ OH-. A neutral solution has equal amounts of H+ and OH-, as is the case for pure water.
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Weak acids and bases
Strong acids and bases have been mention. Let's also give some examples of weak acids and bases. Weak acids and bases are only partially ionized in their …
Acids and bases that are fully ionized when dissolved in water are called strong acids and strong bases. There are six strong acids, which have already …